History of India

History of India indopak pIt is a fact that some of the most important countries in the world have been conquered by their colonial masters after an almost complete revolution. However, this has not stopped many other countries from initiating and implementing revolutions to gain control over them at one point or another. These revolutions often prove to be unsuccessful as they are initiated against the will of their own people. The history of how these empires were defeated can be traced back to the early times when various kingdoms started revolts against their oppressors. Some more successful revolutions include those of the British Empire which took place between 1757 and 1783.The Indian Rebellion was triggered by the unjust treatment of Muslims in the country and began in 1857, taking aim at the discrimination by Hindus towards Muslims. One reason for such prejudice was that the new state of Jharkhand did not extend its powers beyond its borders. This eventually led to the formation of many Muslim kingdoms like Samudhra Pradesh, Jharkhand (1861-1862) Rajputs and Marathas. To protest against this caste system, Muslim inhabitants organized resistance. They formed associations where they sought help from British authorities and fought the British rule in 1857. British officers engaged in violent suppression of rebels and killed some prominent leaders who refused to join the Government forces. After a long struggle by non-violent resistance, all the Muslims in Jharkhand were finally granted state status following the abolition of the castes system. However, this was only a partial victory as Muslims were forced out of their native land and forcefully resettled into smaller villages. Thus, widespread resentment arose among the natives against any form of Hinduisation as it was perceived to deny Muslims their religious freedom. Furthermore, there were no separate seats reserved for Muslims and Hindu, unlike English. Thus, this was also seen as a violation of their religious liberty. The British government responded with repression and violence whenever they came across violence and riots. By 1830s, the rebellion had intensified until it became so fierce that the then Prime Minister Lord Peel decided to send troops in 1919 to suppress protests from Jharkhand Muslims, thus giving up the crown prince’s title Prince of Jharkhand and moving him down the hierarchy of political leadership which he previously enjoyed. Though it lasted a short time, it ultimately helped increase nationalist pressure and political awareness among Indians that they would rather live under their own rules in order to govern themselves than be ruled by foreign rulers. A series of incidents by British soldiers involved in killings, tortures and detentions took place in the 1920s. Due to this, much violence occurred at public places in which clashes broke out between soldiers and civilians. In 1926, rioting broke out once again leading to massive damage and injuries amongst locals. This incident resulted in large numbers being arrested and tried again in 1927.In 1928, a law called ‘’Rajiv Gandhi Act’ was passed with which the state guaranteed citizenship rights to everyone irrespective of religion. The act further stated that the police officer of the district would not be prosecuted upon exercising his power over someone who belonged to a particular faith and sect. Many Muslims in Jharkhand were resentful in this development. For instance, some Muslims protested the imposition of this laws arguing that they needed them in order to enjoy their citizenship like anyone else. But British officers retaliated by arresting several Muslim men who participated at demonstrations. Most protests were peaceful however, due to the rise in political movements such as the Quit India Movement, violent crimes started erupting. During 1931, a man named Mohammed Ali became a victim of lynching when he confronted Chief Justice Syed Ahmedabh Verma on the road. He was later sentenced to death.

An attempt by Muslims to take revenge on others involved in riots failed too as no one could bring charges against him due to the very low number of witnesses. As a result, the Muslim community felt cheated and betrayed and therefore, they started boycotting British goods like clothing, tea etc. Many Muslims left Jharkhand and migrated to neighbouring states like Bihar and Maharashtra.After independence, Muslims fled away from Jharkhand and other Muslim dominated areas in search of opportunities as well as safety. They moved around and formed small groups to seek refuge wherever they could find support. There were two major sources of refugees: 1) immigrants from Pakistan and 2) Punjabis (Makers and Traders). Over 70 percent of the refugees were Punjabis. Other reasons for migration included; economic hardships, famine, corruption, unemployment, lack of education facilities in their homeland as well as lack of jobs.The arrival of British troops to Jharkhand and Bihar to pursue the same agenda proved futile as both territories were under British rule and faced the same kind of oppression. Therefore, riots broke out yet again and turned violent and bloody. In 1942, huge scale massacre took place along East and West Bank between Indian Army and the Pakistani army. In 1947, armed resistance broke out as Muslims formed militia groups and joined hands to fight against British Rule. While the British government sent hundreds of thousands people to stop the revolt in 1948, many died due to mismanagement of resources. On 19th September 1952, a huge uprising against British rule descended on Patna and went on till the end of the day forcing the British government to surrender its capital state. At least 20,000 people lost their lives at the hands of Indian troops leading to widespread fear and anxiety amongst Jharkhand natives towards their former masters.After the Liberation War in 1945, the British government started exerting pressure on Jharkhand which gave rise to a civil war. In 1950s, mass suicides took place and large number of children lost their lives. Between 1953 and 1956, three major suicide attacks occurred in Mumbai, Guwahati and Hyderabad. Around 1960s, a civil war broke out which made the Jharkhand Region the worst affected area in India in 1962. Even though the local security and paramilitary forces managed to hold off the attack, over 22,000 people lost their lives in the first weeks and sustained heavy losses on the international stage. With the onset of insurgency, the Jharkhand Police Station was attacked and demolished resulting in deaths of more than 25 policemen and civilians. On 28th January 1966, two senior police personnel were killed while over 50 policemen were injured during a shootout in Charsa when they blocked roads and opened fire on the insurgents. During 1968 and 1969, fighting between the Central forces (including those under the garb of counter terrorism) and Jharkhand troops continued for months. From 1971 onwards, several brutal military actions took place including firing indiscriminately at civilian homes, hospitals, schools and markets. When the last major battle took place, approximately 4,000 Jhanvi people, mostly Muslims, were brutally massacred by the Jhanmi Militia.The aftermath of such violence was marked by social upheaval. Following the death of Ravi Shankar Prasad, there emerged separatist movements against British rule. In 1972, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi launched the Non State of Jharkhand Movement aimed at promoting autonomy. Under the Jharkhand movement movement, a resolution was passed demanding self rule and equal rights for all. In 1973, Kashmiris began to feel that they needed autonomy because they wanted to exercise their political rights and political autonomy. As a consequence, an agitation of J-K citizens began in Delhi on 26 January 1984 and this gained popularity in Jharkhand by 1988. Jharkhand and Punjab, the largest Muslim majority states in India, formed a joint front to fight British rule. On 21 December 1989, in Rajasthan, protesting Muslims threw their shoes across the Ganges River. People from different parts of the country, including Haryana and Uttar Pradesh as well as Kolkata began throwing their shoes.

The shoe throwers subsequently raised slogans against the British rule. Similarly, in 1994, Muslims took part in another demonstration against British Rule and demanded justice to the people who have suffered at the hand of British Rule.

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