History of Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Modern humans are thought to have
arrived in Pakistan between seventy three thousand and
fifty five thousand years ago settled life farming in pastoral ISM started around 7000 BC
people worked in agriculture and in domestication of
animals like goats sheep or cattle by 4500 BC settled
life had become more widespread and in time evolved into
the Indus Valley Civilisation one of the
earliest civilizations Indus Valley Civilisation as well
as ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia was noted for developing
new techniques and handicraft metallurgy
development is believed to be the first civilization to
use wheeled transport in the form of Bullock carts
and also used boats the route which traversed the Indus
Valley linking Central Asia the Indian subcontinent
and the Orient have attracted people from
far places in the beginning of the second millennium BC
climate change with persistent droughts led to the
abandonment of the urban centres of the Indus Valley
Civilisation its population resettled in smaller villages
and mixed with indo-aryan tribes who moved into
other areas of the Indian subcontinent in several waves of
migration also driven by the effects of this climate
change the vedic period 1500 to 500 BC as
indo-aryans migrated and settled into the Indus Valley
along with them came their distinctive religious
traditions and practices which fused with local
culture the initial early vedic culture was a
tribal pastoral society centered in the Indus Valley of
what is today Pakistan during this period the Vettes the
oldest scriptures of Hinduism were composed the
Vedic tribes remained in the Indus Valley by six century
BC these tribes fought against one another and were
vulnerable against possible Outsiders or invasions King
Darius the first of the Achaemenid Empire took advantage
of the opportunity and planned for an invasion
the Indus Valley was a major of – for the Persian Empire
and other earlier incursions and campaigns existed
in the Indus River in 518 BC Darius led his army through
the Khyber Pass eventually reached the Arabian Sea
coasts sinned by 516 BC under Persian rule a system of
centralized administration with a bureaucratic
system was introduced into the Indus Valley for the first
time provinces or satrapy were established with provincial
capitals also there is no archaeological evidence of a K
minute control over these regions as not a single
archaeological site that can be positively identified
with the Achaemenid Empire has been found anywhere
in Pakistan we know about the easternmost satraps and the
borderlands of via commanded empire is set in daria
subscriptions and from greek sources in 328 BC Alexander
the Great at that time King of Macedonia king of Persia
andPharaoh of Egypt had conquered much of
the former satraps in the Achaemenid Empire up to Bactria
when Alexander died in 323 BCE he left behind an expansive
empire stretching from Greece to the Indus River the
Empire was put under the authority of / takus and the
territories were divided among Alexander’s generals
due to the internal conflicts of Alexander’s generals
Chandragupta and his Brahmin councilor Chanakya saw an
opportunity to expand the mauryan empire from its Ganges
plain Heartland in Bihar towards the Indus Valley between
325 BCE to 303 BCE Mauryan Empire incorporated
today’s Pakistan and far beyond in today’s Afghanistan it
collapsed around 180 BC and the shunga Empire started to exist
but not near the Indus Valley here in Alexander’s
campaigns many Greeks established in this part of
the Empire creating communities and influencing the
region with their culture the indo-greek kingdom expanded
beyond the Hindu Kush their territories covered paunchy
Ranke pissah in modern Afghanistan and extended to the
Punjab region with many tributaries to the
south and east the Greek and Indian languages culture
traditions mixed creating a very interesting period forthis
land sokka’s migrated from southern central
asia into pakistan from the middle of the second century
BC to the 1st century BC they replaced the Indo Greeks
Indo Parthian and cushion empires ruled the
lands here in the 1st centuries and by the end of the 3rd
century the sassanids Shan cha Shakur the first had
incorporated the indo-iranian Borderlands into the
Sassanid realm the Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian
Empire existing approximately from 320 to 600 and covered
much of northern South Asia including some parts of
modern Pakistan having its border with the Sassanid
Empire in the Indus Valley across Indus River this period
is very important great accomplishments and
great cultural developments took place during the reigns
of important leaders as an example we can give the
literary epics such as Mahabharata and Ramayana
this structure collapsed due to internal and external
factors like loss of territories invasions and instability
the Indo heft the lights were a nomadic Confederation in
Central Asia during the Late Antiquity period they were
defeated by an alliance of Indian rulers Brahmin
dynasty existed in the region of Sindh between 632 and
around 724 in this territory there were many other small
states in the next centuries another important period of this land is
expansion of the Arab caliphs it’s a large expansion happened in the 7th century after conquering the Middle East and the Sassanid Empire a Reb Forces had reached the Indus Valley Muhammad bin Qasim conquered
most of the industry j’en for the Umayyad empire during
the time of Arab caliphs it’s a gradual
conversion to Islam happened as the new religion spread
more and more also Arabic and Persian languages spread and
influenced the region ghaznavid empire and then guren
empire ruled for centuries over the Indus Valley and
beyond by doing so the new culture and religion
was embraced by more and more people becoming dominant in
time the Delhi Empire was a Sultanate based in Delhi
that stretched over large parts of India ruling over the
largest rivers here and also deep in India’s territory
this Sultanate was ruled by Five Dynasties
men look cyall G tug loc Siyad and Lodi during and in the
Delhi Sultanate the emergence of the Hindi Urdu language
started to happen there was a synthesis of Indian
civilization and that of Islamic civilization and the
further integration of the Indian subcontinent
with the growing world system and wider international
networks spending large parts of afro-eurasia which had a
significant impact on Indian culture and society mongols
attacked the region between the 13th and 14th centuries
timur invaded the punjab region and sacked cities at the
end of the 14th century the first battle of
Panipat was fought between the invading forces
of Babur and the Lodi kingdom it took place in North
India and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire in the
end of the Delhi Sultanate this was one of the earliest
battles involving gunpowder firearms and field artillery
in the Indian subcontinent which were induced by Mughals
in this battle the early modern period started with the
Mughal Empire Mughal rule was briefly interrupted by the
Sur Empire the religion of Sikhism originated during
this era in the punjab province of pakistan mughal rule
was the time of economic development prosperity and
peace for pakistan which remained nearly two centuries
and also the golden age of the region there responsible
for spreading our dual and built many masjid
x’ mausoleums madrasahs sand forts in pakistan the period
was marked by economic activity excellence in painting
and magnificent architecture the mughal dynasty greatly
influenced the art architecture culture of today’s
Pakistan during the decline of Mughal in the late
18th and early 19th century the other dynasties invaded
and then controlled the region over
these lands ruled the Durrani Empire the Marathas and the
Sikh Empire most of the territory of modern Pakistan
was occupied by the East India Company of the British
Empire a series of conflicts followed in the region in
which the British fought local rulers Sikhs and Afghans
Pakistan became part of British rule later than other
parts of South Asia and it stayed this way until
the 14th of August 1947 when Pakistan gained independence
the two provinces of British India Punjab and Bengal were
divided along religious lines violence and conflicts
existed between the Hindus Sikhs and Muslims and millions
migrated to the new borders and some exchanges of
populations the dispute over Kashmir escalated into the
first war between India and Pakistan Constitution in 1956
led to Pakistan declaring itself an Islamic Republic with
the adoption of a parliamentary democratic system of
government another conflict with India will happen that
took place between April 1965 and September 1965 economic
grievances and political disenfranchisement in East
Pakistan led to violent political tensions escalating
into a civil war then another conflict with India
Pakistan was defeated in the war and this led to the Bangladesh
independence between 1971 to 1977 Zulfiqar
Ali Bhutto creates an Islamic socialist system in 1977
after a Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto is executed the Islamic law
is imposed political crises new elections and
instabilities existed until this day also an important
fact of the period of modern Pakistan is their
population boom if in this region lived thirty five
million when they achieved independence by 1990 here
lived around 100 million


and today more than 200
million

and today more than 200
million

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