History of Seljuk Empire

Around 776 AD, a state was founded between the land of Caspian sea and Aral sea name (Oghuz Yabgu State)

Number of nomadic tribes live in this region

and one of them was Qiniq Tribe.

No one known, in the near future this tribe and its Successor will establish such an enormous Muslim empire

From Afghanistan in the east to Anatolia (know as Asia Minor) in the west.

When and which sultan / King expanded the empire territory?

What were their family tree?

and when Seljuk Empire decline start?Doqaq bey, was commander and chief of armed forces in Oghuz Yabgu State He was one of the most influential and prominent state man.A child was born in their home and his name was Seljuk.Seljuk has no doubt a strong and dominant personality like his father.Due to some unknown reasons, disputes raised between Seljuk and Oghuz Yabgu State.That’s why Seljuk and his tribe migrated from Oghuz Yabgu State and settled in the city of Jand in Transoxiana.At that era, Jand city was very important due to its religious and business aspects.And Islam was already flourished in this region as well.Islamic religion and its teaching impressed Suljuk too much.Here in Jand, he got the opportunity to explore Islamic lifestyle.

In 985-986 AD, with his tribe he accepted Islam.

Seljuk had 5 children, and their name was Mikail, Arslan, Yusuf, Yunus and Musa.

In fact, Seljuk inherited military skills

And he was by birth a great warrior and leader of its tribe,

After accepting Islam, he first denied to pay taxes and submit loyalty to Non muslim Oghuz Yabgu state.

Meanwhile, another major incident was the death of Seljuk son Mikail.Mikail also two sons, Tughral Bey and Chaghrı Bey.Due to Seljuk great military’s power, Samanid empire request for help against Bughra Khan.The Seljuks sent their army under the command of their eldest son Arsalan to help the Samanid Empire.While Karakhanids Sultan Bughra Khan had already captured Bukhara.However, Samanid withdrew Bukhara with the help of Arsalan forces. But that success did not last long.And Karakhanids had taken over all the land of Transoxiana.

ٖFor more information, you can click on above mentioned link.Seljuk died in Jund around 1007 AD or 1009 AD.
However, he left behind 4 sons and 2 grandsons (Tughral Bey and Chaghri Bey).After Mikail’s death, Seljuk took care of their own grandsons, Tughral Bey and Chaghri Bey.In addition to his patronage, the Seljuk’s made them an expert fighter / Martial arts.After Seljuk’s death, his son Arslan became the new leader of the tribe.As time went on, small fights broke out between Seljuk’s and Karakhanid’s.But overall, the winners of these battles were the Seljuks.Eventually, around 1025 AD, the Karakhanid’s allied themselves with the Ghaznavids and Together they plotted to overthrow the Seljuks.Seljuk leader Arslan was invited for peace talks.When Arsalan and his son Qutalmish accepted the invitation and went to see him, Ghaznavids put them in jail.The incident caused chaos in the Qiniq tribe.Compared to the other Seljuk sons, a large section of the Qanq tribe made Seljuk’s grandson Tughral Bey their leader because of his leadership and fighting skills.Around 1032 AD, Tughral Bey’s uncle Arsalan died in Ghaznavi captivity.However, his son Qutalmish managed to escape from Ghaznavi captivity.And reached his Qinik tribe safely.

1040 AD: The Seljuk tribes, led by Tughral Bey and Chaghri Bey, seized all of Central Asia land from Masood-I (son of Muhmood Ghaznavi).The Seljuk state was formally established here.Tughral Bey appointed Chaghri Bey as the Governor of Khurasan.And he himself marched west to conquer Persia.In 1046 AD, Tughral sent a military mission under the command of Qutalmish to occupy the Byzantine territory in the west.

And so began a series of conquests in the Byzantine region to the west.

In 1050-51 AD; The whole of Persia, including Isfahan, was under the control of the Seljuk Empire.

As Sultan: Tughral Bey ruled Iran from the Persian city of Ray, while his brother Chargari Bey ruled Khorasan and adjoining areas as governor.

Sultan Tughral Bey had no children.

Therefore, in 1063 AD, he made his nephew Suleiman son of Chargari Bey his legal heir and passed away.But soon Suleiman’s elder brother (Alp Arslan) took control of the government.Tughral Bey’s cousin, Qutalmiash, started fighting for the government with Alp Arsalan.But he did not succeed in gaining control of the government from Arsalan.Sultan Alp Arslan, with the help of one of his senior ministers (Nizam-o-mulk), began conquests in Syria and the Palestinian territories.He eliminated the Fatimid Shia Empire from these areas.And empowered the Abbasid Caliphate.He then set out to conquer the Byzantine region of Anatolia in the west.In the famous Battle of Manzikart 1071 AD, he opened the door for his next Seljuk generation to occupy the land of Anatolia.Many Seljuk chiefs continued to occupy land in Anatolia, during which Sultan Alp Arslan died in 1072 AD.

Before his death, Sultan Alp Arslan made his son Malik Shah the legal heir of the Seljuk kingdom.

In the Anatolian region (Asia Minor), Malik Shah appointed Suleiman (son of Qutalmish), as commander, In order to increase the boundaries of the Seljuk Empire.

In 1077 AD, Sultanate of Rum was founded by Suleiman.

On an administrative basis, the Seljuk Empire was organized into two parts.

The eastern part was under the rule of Malik Shah and the western part (Anatolia) was under the rule of Suleiman.

Sultanate of Rum was ruled by fourteen rulers from Suleiman’s lineage.

Sultan Malik Shah was assassinated in 1092 AD.

Then the battle for the throne began between his sons.

The Seljuk Empire, which was at its height, began to decline with the death of Malik Shah.

Malik Shah’s son ruled one after another but no one could stop the decline of the Seljuk Empire except Sultan Ahmad Sanjar.

During the reign of Sultan Ahmed Sanjar, 1118-1153 CE, the eastern part of the empire was fortified for a while, but with the death of Sultan Ahmad Sanjar, this eastern part also came to an end.

Sultan Ahmed Sanjar had no children, so with the death of Ahmed Sanjar in 1157 CE, the eastern part of the Seljuk Empire was divided into smaller parts.

Later, Khwarazm Shah united them and founded a new state.

It was named Khwarazmian Empire.

While in the western part of the Seljuk Empire, Sultanate of Rum stood in front of the Crusaders as an independent empire.

Suleiman died in 1086 CE

In 1092 CE, the Sultanate of Rum also came under the rule of Sultan Malik Shah.

But after the death of Sultan Malik Shah in 1092 CE, Kilij Arslan-I Suleiman’s son took control of the Sultanate of Rum.

Sultan College Arsalan I continued the war against the Crusades and was constantly defeating them at various places in Anatolia.

In 1107 CE, Kilij Arslan-I was assassinated by Sultan Muhammad Tapar bin Malik Shah of the eastern part due to an internal dispute.

After the death of Kilij Arslan, his son Malik Shah ruled the Sultanate of Rum from 1107-1116 CE.

Then his brother Masud assassinated him and seized the kingdom.

Sultan Masud captured the kingdom during the Second Crusade.

And in these battles he defeated the Crusaders.

After the death of Sultan Masud in 1156 CE, his son, Kilij Arslan-II, began his reign over the kingdom.

The Third Crusade began during the reign of Kilij Arslan-II.

And this series of crusades continued until his death.

In 1186 CE, Kilij Arslan-II divide the SultanateofRum in his 11 sons.

And he himself died in 1192 AD.

Then, after the death of the Kilij Arslan-II, the battle for the throne began.

Now these 11 brothers were fighting among themselves for control of the area.

And slowly the empire began to decline.

This series of civil wars and killings continued from 1192 to 1237.

After the death of Kilij Arsalan II in 1192, the throne passed to his middle son Kaykhusraw-I.

But later his elder brother Rukn-al-Din snatched the government from him in 1196.

After Rukn-ud-Din’s death in 1204, his son, Kilij Arslan III, took control of the government.

But in 1205, his uncle Kaykhusraw-I, the former sultan of the kingdom, snatched the government from his nephew and once again declared himself sultan which lasted until 1211 AD.

After the death of kaykhusraw-I, his son Kaykaus-I ruled on Sultanate of Rum till 1220.

And after the death of Kaykaus-I, the kingdom passed into the hands of his brother Keyqubad till 1237 CE.

Kayqubad had 3 sons, he wanted to make his middle sons (Rukn-al-Din Kilij Arslan Bin Kaykhusraw) the legal heir to the throne.

But after the death of his father in 1237 CE, Giyath-al-Din took control of the empire with the help of powerful ministers and commanders.

Saad a-Din Köpek was also the legal minister of the Sultanate of Rum at that time.

At the same time, the Mongol invaders were standing on the borders of the empire like a great storm.

While Sa’d al-Din Köpek was trying to capture the Seljuk Empire for himself by collaborating with the Mongols.

Here we tell you that in the Turkish drama Ertugrul, you are watching the same Sultanate of Rum characters.

This is the same Giyath-al-Din character whose close relative’s daughter or cousin’s daughter Halima became the wife of Ertugrul.

The Mongols assassinated Giyath-al-Din Kaykhusraw-III in 1246 for not cooperating, whereas he left behind 3 sons Izze al-Din Kaykaus Rukn al-Din Kilij Arslan Ala al-Din Kayqubad-II when Giyath-al-Din Kaykhusraw-III died, his elder son was only 11 years old.
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One of their ministers divided the empire into three parts, so that unity and solidarity were maintained among these brothers But the solution did not last long.
Because, the Mongols had already occupied a large part of the land in Anatolia.
And the Seljuks were already paying ransom & tribute to the Mongols.
The Mongols defeated Izz al-Din and exiled him.
Another brother, Ala al-Din Kayqubad-II, was killed by the Mongols too.

The Mongols appointed the last third one as puppet sultan over Sultanate of Rum, which was Rukn al-Din Kilij Arslan-IV
The Mongols later executed Rukn al-Din Kilij Arslan-IV in 1265 CE and appointed his 6-year-old son as the new Sultan.
Thus the Mongols completely surrounded the Sultanate of Rum.
By the end of the thirteenth century, the Seljuk Empire had completely collapsed.
But with the beginning of the new century, a strong new Turkish Muslim empire emerged.
which was named as Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Empire lasted for 600 years and guided the Muslims of the world.

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