History of USA . America

The United States was created in 1776 by the Continental Congress of thirteen colonies which were known as “ thirteen states”. America is an American republic, its capital city is Washington D.C., the president of the U.S., and its largest state is California. The thirteen states have three main branches each branch consisting of a congress, governor, and the supreme court. The constitution of the nation was written on November 4, 1789. As well, it has one chief executive whose name is George Washington and other two members who are chosen by the people of that state. The Constitution also had five articles. These articles stated about how these thirteen states were to be governed and how they would maintain peace and order for their citizens. (PBS)The first chapter in our knowledge of America started when Christopher Columbus landed in Spain on April 25, 1492. He didn’t even know it, but he knew that the New World was there that this man wanted to explore more than the Old World. Christopher Columbus discovered the new world where he saw land and believed it was rightfully his. He sent back with a message describing in depth what he saw which led him to the idea of colonizing this new world for their own needs. In 1519 Pope Francis issued papal bulls recognizing Columbus as a Christian hero, explorer, and discoverer of the Atlantic Ocean. Columbus was in awe and began spreading Christianity throughout the Americas including Mexico and Central America. In 1492 the Royal Navy came up with ships called Vasco de Gama which was called after King Vasco of Gama. This marked the beginning of colonization. A lot more settlers followed this example and then they took over the land. Columbus was so confident in himself that King Juan I of Castile forbade him from sailing further. That only made Columbus decide he would go on to discover more land and colonize it. He had many explorers come out with similar tales but no one could take the place of Diego Cortes. He knew that if he couldn’t colonize America he would die. So on May 29, 1506 Columbus set foot out into the unknown and began conquering the New World. It wasn’t long yet until Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Indies. Both men discovered they can be very good navigators. They landed on one island each and named it differently but both were able to land them there. That’s how things started to change when Columbus got word that America had become inhabited. People started coming out of England to migrate there because of poverty, sickness, famine, disease, etc. There was a large number of different kinds of people coming down in the 1600s and early 1700s. Some came down with smallpox and others killed themselves. One particular group had a strong fear of the Spanish. Many died of sickness while others migrated away from Europe for better jobs. After all of this happened Europe and North America became two separate countries. What was happening in Western Europe during this time period was what most people remember. Unfortunately, though, it wasn’t until later in 1621 when English pirates attacked the Dutch who were stationed at Cape Cod that they realised their mistake and went home. The pirate attacks were the first signs of trouble, greed, corruption, and other problems in European countries. Then on July 15, 1621 a British ship sank off Saint Bartholomew Island off of Maine. This caused Americans to send more supplies down to Newfoundland and give gifts to God instead of doing anything to help those suffering on the ship. Because of all of these attacks, especially the English pirate attacks, Queen Elizabeth I decided she needed American colonists to get rid of her enemies and the Europeans. On June 21, 1623 a small band of Puritans who lived under New York landed on Plymouth Rock. At this point in time, everyone considered the British colonies as part of the empire that had been taken over by Great Britain. By this time almost every other colony had also come together and formed a common enemy against a common enemy. However, there was still time left for the individual colonies to make colonies of themselves and form colonies without any control or influence from the British Crown. The colonies started forming, most forming along religious lines. When it came time for independence came in 1776. Independence Day is what we consider the official date marking the end of slavery. During this day, America was divided between the thirteen colonies. Each was given its own flag, its own seal, and a national song but many colonies had a lot of differences in culture and religion. The colonies were split into sects that were led by kings and rulers. There was religious freedom within each country and many colonies were separated from each other. All of the colonies had a parliament in which representatives represented the views of each. The colonial governments were also responsible for enforcing laws that controlled both public and private property within the colonies. In each and every colony, there was a royal governor who was charged with leading the government on behalf of the king. Every king’s term was four years, that’s why the federal government started forming in 1789 as well as the state governments. These states then elected senators whose job was to vote on legislation and passed those bills to the House. These legislatures then voted on governors before passing those bills to the Senate. If bills were passed into law by a Congress majority and they weren’t vetoed by the governors and the states senators, it would be nullified by Congress. By this time all of the thirteen tribes had agreed to the central government and form the government. Later on, President John Adams was elected in 1789. He declared himself as the eighth president of the United States. After being elected, President Adams signed the 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution which gave Americans the right to alter or repeal parts of the bill. This meant the Bill of rights which is the most important. Another thing that wasn’t in the Bill of Rights was the writ of habeas corpus which means the right to keep and be kept in custody of a accused person. Once Adams got out of office there was a big debate on what the role of the president should be. His opponents were Thomas Jefferson who was also the father of our current presidents (Thomas Jefferson) and Aaron Burr who was another controversial figure throughout American history. The Supreme Court, however, did vote 8-4 on February 9, 1789 for Chief Justice John Marshall. Justice Marshall was the last judge to sit on the high bench in 1825. While in office, Marshall ended the practice of judicial review which is when judges review cases by using their common law privileges. This was seen by some leaders as interfering with the judiciary process. He also repealed the rule of primacy in deciding issues as judges usually ruled on matters based on previous rulings. Marshall helped create the highest court in the world when the Supreme Court was established. (PBS)In 1790, the Federalist Party took over. This party was not democratic, republican, or liberal as they wanted to stay in power for life. It tried to abolish slavery however and did pass the Alien and Sedition Act which gave us the Espionage Act. It also banned “seditious libel”. Other acts were passed but none would come close to succeeding the Espionage act. In fact, after being sworn in, President William Pitt repealed slavery in March 1794 and issued an act freeing all slaves from their plantations. However, this move angered some Republican voters and Jefferson refused to sign the document. Jefferson then went on a crusade to convince people to support the Republicans. Jefferson would eventually win the election because he promised to stop slavery and to end government interference in the affairs of people. He won due to the success of The Proclamation of Independence which was a popular quote during presidential campaign. This Proclamation of Independence also came into existence under the amendment IV of the Constitution. Now, The Declaration of Independence states the reasons for what has happened. That includes: “that the united kingdom of Great Britain hath refused to consent to the renewal of the last war’; of the late provocations of war’; and, that it has refused to comply with the terms of the Treaty of Paris.” (Amendment IV). This quote is what inspired President Franklin Roosevelt to send troops to Russia hoping to negotiate an end to WW2 when he was elected in 1932. Eventually, Hitler would be defeated and America was liberated from Germany. This liberated America as well however, although the Japanese were slow to surrender, they were forced to surrender shortly after Hitler was defeated. President Harry Truman then declared war on Japan in 1945. He wanted more than just the allies to finally do something to end WW2. He also wanted to try to free America from the shackles of slavery so he signed legislation that abolished slavery. The Second Amendment would play an important role in the fight for civil rights. (Amendment V). Even though the second amendment doesn’t seem like much of a priority, it would play an important part in making President Jimmy Carter President in 1977. His Presidency lasted about 40 years and was filled with tough times. He was known as a “tough guy” and was put into charge about the Watergate scandal of 1973. He was the third President to resign his Presidency and because of his toughness, he resigned in January 2001. President Barack Obama served until 2013 in office as well as serving eight years as President George W. Bush. He campaigned to be re-elected during the 2008 Presidential Election and lost by a margin of 270 votes to Mitt Romney. He ran again in 2012 however, this time the race went against him. In 2012, Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont won the primary. He beat Pete Buttigieg with 20% of the nomination. Mr Sanders was never very effective in winning the Democratic nomination. Due to his unsuccessful run, he joined the Green Party and ran for election for Governor of Massachusetts in 2016. Finally, in August 2020, Donald Trump will be

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